Lymphoma Products

On the relationship between organochlorines and human cancer risk (Sources: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 2002, Breast Cancer Research 2005). Risk of Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) associated with contemporary hair dye use varies by genetic polymorphisms; particularly, immunological genes, DNA repair genes, and genes involved in the metabolism of environmental exposures may influence individual susceptibility for NHL.

Below is a table with common genetic variants that modulate risk for lymphoma when exposed to benzenes and ogranochlorenes:

Table 1.

Gene

SNP

Ref

Gene

SNP

Ref

Immune-related genes

TNF

rs1800629

[1-3]

IL-1RN

rs2637988

[4]

IL-6

rs1800795

[2]

IL-6

rs1800797

[2]

IL-4

rs2243248

[2, 5]

DEFB126

rs6054706

[6]

IL-5

rs2069812

[5]

ICAM1

rs2304240

[7]

IL-10

rs1800890

[2, 5]

IL-10

rs1800896

[2, 5]

IL-10RA

rs9610

[1]

MASP2

rs12711521

[6]

IL12A

rs582054

[2]

PTGDR

rs708486

[7]

IL15RA

rs2296135

[2]

Genes that metabolize NHL-relevant environmental exposures

AHR

rs17722841

[8]

GSTM3

rs1799735

[9]

CYP1A1

rs1048943

[9]

GSTP1

rs1695

[9, 10]

CYP1B1

rs1056836

[9]

MPO

rs2333227

[11]

DNA Repair Genes

BRCA1

rs16941

[12]

NBS

rs1805794

[13]

BRCA2

rs144848

[13]

WRN

rs1346044

[12]

ERCC2

rs1618536

[14]

XRCC3

rs3212024

[14]

ERCC2

rs2070831

[14]

XRCC3

rs3212038

[14]

ERCC5

rs17655

[12]

XRCC3

rs3212090

[14]

MGMT

rs12917

[13]

References

1.         Bi, X., et al., Genetic polymorphisms in IL10RA and TNF modify the association between blood transfusion and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Am J Hematol, 2012. 87(8): p. 766-9.

2.         Deng, Q., et al., Occupational solvent exposure, genetic variation in immune genes, and the risk for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Eur J Cancer Prev, 2013. 22(1): p. 77-82.

3.         Skibola, C.F., et al., Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA) polymorphisms and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the InterLymph Consortium. Am J Epidemiol, 2010. 171(3): p. 267-76.

4..         Hosgood, H.D., 3rd, et al., A pooled analysis of three studies evaluating genetic variation in innate immunity genes and non-Hodgkin lymphoma risk. Br J Haematol, 2011. 152(6): p. 721-6.

5.         Lan, Q., et al., Cytokine polymorphisms in the Th1/Th2 pathway and susceptibility to non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Blood, 2006. 107(10): p. 4101-8.

6.         Hu, W., et al., Polymorphisms in pattern-recognition genes in the innate immunity system and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Environ Mol Mutagen, 2013. 54(1): p. 72-7.

7.         Shen, M., et al., Polymorphisms in integrin genes and lymphoma risk. Leuk Res, 2011. 35(7): p. 968-70.

8.         Ng, C.H., et al., Interaction between organochlorines and the AHR gene, and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Cancer Causes Control, 2010. 21(1): p. 11-22.

9.       Kilfoy, B.A., et al., Genetic polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferases and cytochrome P450s, tobacco smoking, and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Am J Hematol, 2009. 84(5): p. 279-82.

10.       Soucek, P., et al., Genetic polymorphisms of biotransformation enzymes in patients with Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. Int Arch Occup Environ Health, 2002. 75 Suppl: p. S86-92.

11.       Farawela, H., et al., The association between hepatitis C virus infection, genetic polymorphisms of oxidative stress genes and B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma risk in Egypt. Infect Genet Evol, 2012. 12(6): p. 1189-94.

12.       Shen, M., et al., Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma among women in Connecticut. Hum Genet, 2006. 119(6): p. 659-68.

13.       Jiao, J., et al., Occupational solvent exposure, genetic variation of DNA repair genes, and the risk of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Eur J Cancer Prev, 2012. 21(6): p. 580-4.

14.       Smedby, K.E., et al., Variation in DNA repair genes ERCC2, XRCC1, and XRCC3 and risk of follicular lymphoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 2006. 15(2): p. 258-65.

Bottom line:

The studies indicate that, in general, exposure to one or more of the chemicals mentioned will increase your risk by about 50% if you are exposed to them for at least 20 years (not accounting for genetic risk). And if you have any one of the genetic variants (you are very unlikely to have more than one), and you are exposed to these chemicals, your risk is increased generally by 200% compared to normal genotype and unexposed people. The average occurrence of one of these genotypes is about 1 in 1,000.

So, chances are you are probably safe, but it wouldn’t hurt to avoid occupational exposure to these chemicals or using dangerous hair products. If you really want to make sure, you can test your genome to see if you have any of these SNPs.